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[Oracle数据库] Oracle 冷备份详解【实战案例】

发表于 2018-4-17 08:04:35

Oracle 冷备份详解

--准备工作
select * from v$database;
select file_name from dba_data_files;

create tablespace inv datafile '/oradata/ocm/inv01.dbf' size 2048M;
create user inv identified by inv default tablespace inv temporary tablespace temp;
grant dba,resource to inv;

alter user scott account unlock;
SQL> conn scott/tiger
select * from tab;
select 'create table '||tname||' as select * from scott.'||tname||';' from tab;

create table BONUS as select * from scott.BONUS;
create table DEPT as select * from scott.DEPT;
create table EMP as select * from scott.EMP;
create table SALGRADE as select * from scott.SALGRADE;

create table te_objects as select * from dba_objects;


--oracle冷备份


select instance_name,version,status,archiver,database_status from v$instance;
select dbid,name,log_mode from v$database;

--需要备份文件包括:
/*
数据文件,联机重做日志文件,控制文件,临时文件,参数文件,密码文件,监听文件,tnsnames文件,sqlnet文件
*/

--执行语句准备
select 'cp '|| name ||' /ggs/backup/cold_back' from v$datafile
union all
select 'cp '|| name ||' /ggs/backup/cold_back' from v$tempfile
union all
select 'cp '|| member ||' /ggs/backup/cold_back' from v$logfile
union all
select 'cp '|| name ||' /ggs/backup/cold_back' from v$controlfile;

--注:使用以上SQL生成的Linux命令进行执行,如下:
cp /oradata/ocm/system01.dbf /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/sysaux01.dbf /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/undotbs01.dbf /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/users01.dbf /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/ogg.dbf /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/inv01.dbf /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/temp01.dbf /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/redo04a.rdo /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/redo04b.rdo /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/redo03a.rdo /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/redo03b.rdo /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/redo02a.rdo /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/redo02b.rdo /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/redo01a.rdo /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/redo01b.rdo /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/control01.ctl /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/control02.ctl /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/control03.ctl /ggs/backup/cold_back

create pfile='/ggs/backup/cold_back/dbs/initocm.ora' from spfile;
cp $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orapwocm /ggs/backup/cold_back/dbs/
cp $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/ /ggs/backup/cold_back/admin/


--关闭数据库
alter system archive log all;
shutdown immediate;

--执行代码
cp /oradata/ocm/system01.dbf /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/sysaux01.dbf /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/undotbs01.dbf /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/users01.dbf /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/ogg.dbf /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/inv01.dbf /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/temp01.dbf /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/redo04a.rdo /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/redo04b.rdo /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/redo03a.rdo /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/redo03b.rdo /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/redo02a.rdo /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/redo02b.rdo /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/redo01a.rdo /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/redo01b.rdo /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/control01.ctl /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/control02.ctl /ggs/backup/cold_back
cp /oradata/ocm/control03.ctl /ggs/backup/cold_back

cp $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orapwocm /ggs/backup/cold_back/dbs/
cp -r $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/ /ggs/backup/cold_back/


--启动数据库
sqlplus / as sysdba
startup


【冷备份的优点和缺点】

01、优点冷备模式下概念易于理解,即将需要备份的文件复制到安全的位置操作比较简单,不需要太多的干预容易恢复到某个时间点上(只需将文件再拷贝回去)能与归档方法相结合,作数据库“最新状态”的恢复。

02、缺点 备份时,数据库必须处于一致性关闭状态 只能提供到某一时间点的恢复 备份时速度比较慢,尤其是数据量大性能影响比较大 不能实现基于表和用户级别的数据恢复。




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